The Blackfoot Confederacy , Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi  ?????? , meaning "the people" or " Blackfoot-speaking real people" [a] , is a historic collective name for linguistically related groups that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: the Siksika "Blackfoot" , the Kainai or Kainah "Blood" , and two sections of the Piikani Piegan Blackfeet - the Northern Piikani Aapatohsipikani and the Southern Piikani Amskapi Piikani or Pikuni. Historically, the member peoples of the Confederacy were nomadic bison hunters and trout fishermen, who ranged across large areas of the northern Great Plains of western North America, specifically the semi-arid shortgrass prairie ecological region. They followed the bison herds as they migrated between what are now the United States and Canada, as far north as the Bow River. In the first half of the 18th century, they acquired horses and firearms from white traders and their Cree and Assiniboine go-betweens. The Blackfoot used these to expand their territory at the expense of neighboring tribes.
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Do you know why? United States. Type keyword s to search. Today's Top Stories. Between an the Nehiyaw-Pwat were at the height of their power; they could successfully defend their territories against the Sioux Lakota, Nakota and Dakota and the Niitsitapi Confederacy. During the so-called Buffalo Wars about -they penetrated further and further into the territory from the Niitsitapi Confederacy in search for the buffalo, so that the Piegan were forced to give way in the region of the Missouri River in Cree: Pikano Sipi - "Muddy River", "Muddy, turbid River"the Kainai withdrew to the Bow River and Belly River ; only the Siksika could hold their tribal lands along the Red Deer River.
Aroun the alliance between the Blackfoot and the Gros Ventre broke, and the latter began to look to their former enemies, the Southern Assiniboine or Plains Assiniboinefor protection.
Anthony Henday of the Hudson's Bay Company HBC met a large Blackfoot group in in what is now Alberta. The Blackfoot had established dealings with traders connected to the Canadian and English fur trade before meeting the Lewis and Clark expedition in On their return trip from the Pacific Coast, Lewis and three of his men encountered a group of young Blackfoot warriors with a large herd of horses, and it was clear to Meriwether Lewis that they were not far from much larger groups of warriors.
Lewis explained to them that the United States government wanted peace with all Indian nations,  and that the US leaders had successfully formed alliances with other Indian nations.
In the ensuing struggle, one warrior was fatally stabbed and another shot by Lewis and presumed killed. In subsequent years, American mountain men trapping in Blackfoot country generally encountered hostility. When John Coltera member of the Lewis and Clark expedition, returned to Blackfoot country soon after, he barely escaped with his life.
InColter and his companion were trapping on the Jefferson River by canoe when they were surrounded by hundreds of Blackfoot warriors on horseback on both sides of the river bank. Colter's companion, John Potts, did not surrender and was killed.
Colter was stripped of his clothes and forced to run for his life, after being given a head start famously known in the annals of the West as "Colter's Run. He trekked another miles to a fort. In the context of shifting tribal politics due to the spread of horses and guns, the Niitsitapi initially tried to increase their trade with the HBC traders in Rupert's Land whilst blocking access to the HBC by neighboring peoples to the West. But the HBC trade eventually read into what is now inland British Columbia.
By the late s, [this prompted] the Niitsitapiksi, and in particular the Piikani, whose territory was rich in beaver, [to] temporarily put aside cultural prohibitions and environmental constraints to trap enormous numbers of these animals and, in turn, receive greater quantities of trade items.
The HBC encouraged Niitsitapiksi to trade by setting up posts on the North Saskatwan Riveron the northern boundary of their territory. In the s the Rocky Mountain region and the wider Saskatwan District were the HBC's most profitable, and Rocky Mountain House was the HBC's busiest post. It was primarily used by the Piikani. Other Niitsitapiksi nations traded more in pemmican and buffalo skins than beaver, and visited other posts such as Fort Edmonton.
Meanwhile, in the American Fur Company entered the Upper Missouri region from the south for the first time, without Niitsitapiksi permission. This led to tensions and conflict untilwhen peaceful trade was established. This was followed by the opening of Fort Piegan as the first American trading post in Niitsitapi territory injoined by Fort MacKenzie in The Americans offered better terms of trade and were more interested in buffalo skins than the HBC, which brought them more trade from the Niitsitapi.
The HBC responded by building Bow Fort Peigan Post on the Bow River inbut it was not a success. InGerman explorer Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied and Swiss painter Karl Bodmer spent months with the Niitsitapi to get a sense of their culture. Bodmer portrayed their society in paintings and drawings.
Contact with the Europeans caused a spread of infectious diseases to the Niitsitapi, mostly cholera and smallpox. Peter'swas headed to Fort Union and several passengers contracted smallpox on the way. They continued to send a smaller vessel with supplies farther up the river to posts among the Niitsitapi.
The Niitsitapi contracted the disease and eventually 6, died, marking an end to their dominance among tribes over the Plains. The Hudson's Bay Company did not require or help their employees get vaccinated; the English doctor Edward Jenner had developed a technique 41 years before but its use was not yet widespread.
Like many other Great Plains Indian nations, the Niitsitapi often had hostile relationships with white settlers. Despite the hostilities, the Blackfoot stayed largely out of the Great Plains Indian Wars, neither fighting against nor scouting for the United States army. One of their friendly bands, however, was attacked by mistake and nearly destroyed by the US Army in the Marias Massacre on 2 Januaryundertaken as an action to suppress violence against settlers.
A friendly relationship with the North-West Mounted Police and learning of the brutality of the Marias Massacre discouraged the Blackfoot from engaging in wars against Canada and the United States. When the Lakotatogether with their yenne and Arapaho allies, were fighting the United States Army, they sent runners into Blackfoot territory, urging them to join the fight.
Crowfootone of the most influential Blackfoot chiefs, dismissed the Lakota messengers.
He threatened to ally with the NWMP to fight them if they came north into Blackfoot country again. News of Crowfoot's loyalty read Ottawa and from there London ; Queen Victoria praised Crowfoot and the Blackfoot for their loyalty.
Crowfoot considered the Lakota then to be refugees and was sympathetic to their strife, but retained his anti-war stance. Sitting Bull and Crowfoot fostered peace between the two nations by a ceremonial offering of tobacco, ending hostilities between them.
Sitting Bull was so impressed by Crowfoot that he named one of his sons after him. The Blackfoot also chose to stay out of the Northwest Rebellionled by the famous Metis leader Louis Riel. Louis Riel and his men added to the already unsettled conditions facing the Blackfoot by camping near them.
They tried to spread discontent with the government and gain a powerful ally.
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The Northwest Rebellion was made up mostly of Metis, Assiniboine Nakota and Plains Creewho all fought against European encroachment and destruction of Bison herds. The Plains Cree were one of the Blackfoot's most hated enemies; however, the two nations made peace when Crowfoot adopted Poundmakeran influential Cree chief and great peacemaker, as his son.
Although he refused to fight, Crowfoot had sympathy for those with the rebellion, especially the Cree led by such notable chiefs as Poundmaker, Big BearWandering Spirit and Fine-Day. When news of continued Blackfoot neutrality read Ottawa, Lord Lansdownethe governor general, expressed his thanks to Crowfoot again on behalf of the Queen back in London.
The cabinet of Sir John A. Macdonald the current Prime Minister of Canada at the time gave Crowfoot a round of applause. During the mids, the Niitsitapi faced a dwindling food supply, as European-American hunters were hired by the U. S government to kill bison so the Blackfeet would remain in their reservation.
Settlers were also encroaching on their territory. Without the buffalo, the Niitsitapi were forced to depend on the United States government for food supplies. Invery few buffalo were left, and the Niitsitapi became completely dependent on government supplies. Often the food was spoiled by the time they received it, or supplies failed to arrive at all. Hungry and desperate, Blackfoot raided white settlements for food and supplies, and outlaws on both sides stirred up trouble.
Events were catalyzed by Owl Child, a young Piegan warrior who stole a herd of horses in from an American trader named Malcolm Clarke. Clarke retaliated by tracking Owl Child down and severely beating him in full view of Owl Child's camp, and humiliating him.
According to Piegan oral history, Clarke had also raped Owl Child's wife. But, Clarke was long married to Coth-co-co-na, a Piegan woman who was Owl Child's cousin. Public outcry from news of the event led to General Philip Sheridan to dispatch a band of cavalry, led by Major Eugene Baker, to find Owl Child and his camp and punish them.
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On 2 Januarya camp of Piegan Indians were spotted by army scouts and reported to the dispatd cavalry, but it was mistakenly identified as a hostile band.
Around soldiers surrounded the camp the following morning and prepared for an ambush. Before the command to fire, the chief Heavy Runner was alerted to soldiers on the snowy bluffs above the encampment. He walked toward them, carrying his safe-conduct paper. Heavy Runner and his band of Piegans shared peace between American settlers and troops at the time of the event. Heavy Runner was shot and killed by army scout Joe Cobell, whose wife was part of the camp of the hostile Mountain Chieffurther along the river, from whom he wanted to divert attention.
Fellow scout Joe Kipp had realized the error and tried to signal the troops. He was threatened by the cavalry for reporting that the people they attacked were friendly. Following the death of Heavy Runner, the soldiers attacked the camp. According to their count, they killed Piegan and suffered just one U. S Army soldier casualty, who fell off his horse and broke his leg, dying of complications. Most of the victims were women, children and the elderly, as most of the younger men were out hunting.
The Army took Piegan prisoner and then released them. With their camp and belongings destroyed, they suffered terribly from exposure, making their way as refugees to Fort Benton. As reports of the massacre gradually were learned in the east, members of the United States congress and press were outraged. General William Sherman reported that most of the killed were warriors under Mountain Chief. An official investigation never occurred, and no official monument marks the spot of the massacre.
Compared to events such as the massacres at Wounded Knee and Sand Creekthe Marias Massacre remains largely unknown. But, it confirmed President Ulysses S. Grant in his decision not to allow the Army to take over the Bureau of Indian Affairs, as it had been suggesting to combat corruption among Indian agents.
Grant chose to appoint numerous Quakers to those positions as he pursued a peace policy with Native Americans. The Cree and Assiniboine also suffered from the dwindling herds of the buffalo. By herds were found almost exclusively on the territory of the Blackfoot. Therefore, in various Nehiyaw-Pwat bands began a final effort to get hold of their prey, by beginning a war.
They hoped to defeat the Blackfoot weakened by smallpox and attacked a camp near Fort Whoop-Up called Akaisakoyi - "Many Dead". But they were defeated in the so-called Battle of the Belly River near Lethbridgecalled Assini-etomochi - "where we slaughtered the Cree" and lost over warriors.
The next winter the hunger compelled them to negotiate with the Niitsitapi, with whom they made a final lasting peace. The United States passed laws that adversely affected the Niitsitapi. Inthe US Congress voted to change the Niitsitapi reservation borders without discussing it with the Niitsitapi. They received no other land or compensation for the land lost, and in response, the Kainai, Siksika, and Piegan moved to Canada; only the Pikuni remained in Montana.
The winter of - became known as "Starvation Winter" because no government supplies came in, and the buffalo were gone. That winter, Niitsitapi died of hunger. In efforts to assimilate the Native Americans to European-American ways, inthe government dismantled tribal governments and outlawed the practice of traditional Indian religions.
They required Blackfoot children to go to boarding schoolswhere they were forbidden to speak their native language, practise customs, or wear traditional clothing.
Each household received a acre 65 ha farm, and the government declared the remainder "surplus" to the tribe's needs.
It put it up for sale for development. A drought destroyed crops and increased the cost of beef. Many Indians were forced to sell their allotted land and pay taxes which the government said they owed. In the Indian Reorganization Actpassed by the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration, ended allotments and allowed the tribes to choose their own government.
They were also allowed to practise their cultures. After that, they wrote and passed their own Constitution, with an elected representative government. Family was highly valued by the Blackfoot Indians. For traveling, they also split into bands of people, but would come together for times of celebration. During times of peace, the people would elect a peace chiefmeaning someone who could lead the people and improve relations with other tribes.
The title of war chief could not be gained through election and needed to be earned by successfully performing various acts of bravery including touching a living enemy. Within the Blackfoot nation, there were different societies to which people belonged, each of which had functions for the tribe.
Young people were invited into societies after proving themselves by recognized passages and rituals. For instance, young men had to perform a vision quest, begun by a spiritual cleansing in a sweat lodge. Their main goal was to see a vision that would explain their future. After having the vision, a youth returned to the village ready to join society.
In a warrior society, the men had to be prepared for battle. Again, the warriors would prepare by spiritual cleansing, then paint themselves symbolically; they often painted their horses for war as well.
Leaders of the warrior society carried spears or lances called a coup stick, which was decorated with feathers, skin, and other tokens. They won prestige by " counting coup ", tapping the enemy with the stick and getting away. Members of the religious society protected sacred Blackfoot items and conducted religious ceremonies. They blessed the warriors before battle. Their major ceremony was the Sun Dance, or Medicine Lodge Ceremony.
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By engaging in the Sun Dance, their prayers would be carried up to the Creator, who would bless them with well-being and abundance of buffalo. Women's societies also had important responsibilities for the communal tribe. They designed refined quillwork on clothing and ceremonial shields, helped prepare for battle, prepared skins and cloth to make clothing, cared for the children and taught them tribal ways, skinned and tanned the leathers used for clothing and other purposes, prepared fresh and dried foods, and performed ceremonies to help hunters in their journeys.
Sage and sweet grass are both used by Blackfoot and other Plains tribes for ceremonial purposes and are considered sacred plants. Sage and sweet grass are burned with the user inhaling and covering themselves in the smoke in a process known widely as smudging.
Sage is said to rid the body of negative emotions such as anger. Sweet grass is said to draw in positive energy. Both are used for purification purposes. The pleasant and natural odor of the burning grass is said to attract spirits.
Sweet grass is prepared for ceremony by braiding the stems together then drying them before burning. Sweet grass is also often present and burned in pipe-smoking mixtures alongside bearberry and red willow plants.
The smoke from the pipe is said to carry the users prayers up to the creator with the rising smoke. Large medicine bags often decorated with ornate beaded designs were used by medicine men to carry sage, sweet grass, and other important plants.
They apply a poultice of wed roots Asclepias viridiflora to swellings, to "diarrhea rash", to rashes, to the sore gums of nursing infants  and to sore eyes. In the Blackfoot culture, men were responsible for choosing their marriage partners, but women had the choice to accept them or not. The male had to show the woman's father his skills as a hunter or warrior. If the father was impressed and approved of the marriage, the man and woman would exchange gifts of horses and clothing and were considered married.
The married couple would reside in their own tipi or with the husband's family. Although the man was permitted more than one wife, typically he only chose one. In cases of more than one wife, quite often the male would choose a sister of the wife, believing that sisters would not argue as much as total strangers. In a typical Blackfoot family, the father would go out and hunt and bring back supplies that the family might need. The mother would stay close to home and watch over the children while the father was out.
The children were taught basic survival skills and culture as they grew up. It was generally said that both boys and girls learned to ride horses early. Boys would usually play with toy bows and arrows until they were old enough to learn how to hunt. They would also play a popular game called shinny, which later became known as ice hockey.
They used a long curved wooden stick to knock a ball, made of baked clay covered with buckskin, over a goal line. Girls were given a doll to play with, which also doubled as a learning tool because it was fashioned with typical tribal clothing and designs and also taught the young women how to care for a child.
The girls were then taught to cook, prepare hides for leather, and gather wild plants and berries. The boys were held accountable for going out with their father to prepare food by means of hunting.
Typically clothing was made primarily of softened and tanned antelope and deer hides. The women would make and decorate the clothes for everyone in the tribe. Men wore moccasins, long leggings that went up to their hips, a loincloth, and a belt. Occasionally they would wear shirts but generally they would wrap buffalo robes around their shoulders.
The distinguished men of bravery would wear a necklace made of grizzly bear claws. Boys dressed much like the older males, wearing leggings, loincloths, moccasins, and occasionally an undecorated shirt. They kept warm by wearing a buffalo robe over their shoulders or over their heads if it became cold.
Women and girls wore dresses made from two or three deerskins. The women wore decorative earrings and bracelets made from sea shells, obtained through trade with distant tribes, or different types of metal. They would sometimes wear beads in their hair or paint the part in their hair red, which signified that they were old enough to bear children.
Similar to other Plains Indians, the Blackfoot developed a variety of different headdresses that incorporated elements of creatures important to them; these served different purposes and symbolized different associations. The typical war bonnet was made from eagle feathers, because the bird was considered powerful. It was worn by prestigious warriors and chiefs including war-chiefs of the Blackfoot.
The straight-up headdress is a uniquely Blackfoot headdress that, like the war bonnet, is made with eagle feathers. The feathers on the straight-up headdress point directly straight upwards from the rim hence the name. Often a red plume is attad to the front of the headdress; it also points straight upward. The split-horn headdress was very popular among Northern Plains Indians, particularly those nations of the Blackfoot Confederacy.
Many warrior societies, including the Horn Society of the Blackfoot, wore the split-horn headdress. The split-horn headdress was made from a single bison horn, split in two and reshaped as slimmer versions of a full-sized bison horn, and polished. The horns were attad to a beaded, rimmed felt hat. Furs from weasels taken when carrying heavy winter coats were attad to the top of the headdress, and dangled from the sides.
The side furs were often finished with bead work where attad to the headdress. A similar headdress, called the antelope horn headdress, was made in a similar fashion using the horn or horns from a pronghorn antelope. Blackfoot men, particularly warriors, sometimes wore a roach made from porcupine hair.
The hairs of the porcupine are most often dyed red. Eagle and other bird feathers were occasionally attad to the roach. Buffalo scalps, often with horns still attad and often with a beaded rim, were also worn.
Fur "turbans" made from soft animal fur most often otter were also popular. Buffalo scalps and fur turbans were worn in the winter to protect the head from the cold.
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The Blackfoot have continued to wear traditional headdresses at special ceremonies. They are worn mostly by elected chiefs, members of various traditional societies including the Horn, Crazy Dog and Motokik societiespowwow dancers and spiritual leaders. One of the most famous traditions held by the Blackfoot is their story of sun and the moon.
It starts with a family of a man, wife, and two sons, who live off berries and other food they can gather, as they have no bows and arrows, or other tools. The man had a dream: he was told by the Creator Napi, Napiu, or Napioa depending on the band to get a large spider web and put it on the trail where the animals roamed, and they would get caught up and could be easily killed with the stone axe he had. The man had done so and saw that it was true.
One day, he came home from bringing in some fresh meat from the trail and discovered his wife to be applying perfume on herself. He thought that she must have another lover since she never did this before. He then told his wife that he was going to move a web and asked if she could bring in the meat and wood he had left outside from a previous hunt.
She had reluctantly gone out and passed over a hill. The wife looked back three times and saw her husband in the same place she had left him, so she continued on to retrieve the meat. The father then asked his children if they went with their mother to find wood, but they never had. However they knew the location in which she retrieved it from. The man set out and found the timber along with a den of rattlesnakes, one of which was his wife's lover.
He set the timber on fire and killed the snakes. He knew by doing this that his wife would become enraged, so the man returned home. He told the children to flee and gave them a stick, stone, and moss to use if their mother chased after them.
He remained at the house and put a web over his front door. The wife tried to get in but became stuck and had her leg cut off. She then put her head through and he cut that off also. While the body followed the husband to the creek, the head followed the children. The oldest boy saw the head behind them and threw the stick. The stick turned into a great forest.
The head made it through, so the younger brother instructed the elder to throw the stone. He did so, and where the stone landed a huge mountain popped up. It spanned from big water ocean to big water and the head was forced to go through it, not around.
The head met a group of rams and said to them she would marry their chief if they butted their way through the mountain. The chief agreed and they butted until their horns were worn down, but this still was not through. She then asked the ants if they could burrow through the mountain with the same stipulations, it was agreed and they get her the rest of the way through.
The children were far ahead, but eventually saw the head rolling behind them. The boys wet the moss and wrung it out behind themselves. They were then in a different land. The country they had just left was now surrounded by water. The head rolled into the water and drowned. They decided to build a raft and head back. Once they returned to their land, they discovered that it was occupied by the crows and the snakes so they decided to split up.
One brother was simple and went north to discover what he could and make people. The other was smart and went south to make white people and taught them valuable skills. The simple brother created the Blackfeet. He became known as Left Hand, and later by the Blackfeet as Old Man. The woman still chases the man: she is the moon and he is the sun, and if she ever cats him, it will always be night.
The creation myth is part of the oral history of the Blackfoot nation. It was said that in the beginning, Napio floated on a log with four animals. The animals were: Mameo fishMatcekups frogManiskeo lizar and Sopeo turtle.
Napio sent all of them into the deep water, one after another. The first three had gone down and returned with nothing.
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The turtle went down and retrieved mud from the bottom and gave it to Napio. He took the mud and rolled it in his hand and created the earth. He let it roll out of his hand and over time, it has grown to what it is today. After he created the earth, he created women first, followed by men. He had them living separately from one another.
The men were shy and afraid, but Napio said to them to not fear and take one as their wife. They had done as he asked, and Napio continued to create the buffalo and bows and arrows for the people so that they could hunt them.
The largest ethnic group in the Confederacy is the Pieganalso spelled Peigan or Pikuni. Their name derives from the Blackfoot term Piikani. They are divided into the Piikani Nation Aapatohsipikani "the companion up there" or simply Piikani in present-day Alberta, and the South Peigan or Piegan Blackfeet Aamsskaapipikani in Montana, United States.
A once large and mighty division of the Piegan were the Inuk'sik "the humans"  of southwestern Montana. Today they survive only as a clan or band of the South Peigan.
The modern Kainai Nation is named for the Blackfoot-language term Kainaameaning "Many Chief people". These were historically also called the "Blood," from a Plains Cree name for the Kainai: Miko-Ewmeaning "stained with blood" i.
The common English name for the tribe is Blood or the Blood tribe. The Siksika Nation 's name derives from Siksikawa, meaning "Those of like".
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The Siksika also call themselves Sao-kitapiiksi, meaning "Plains People". The Sarcee call themselves the Tsu T'ina, meaning "a great number of people. Specifically, the Sarcee are an offshoot of the Beaver Danezaa people, who migrated south onto the plains sometime in the early eighteenth century.
They later joined the Confederacy and essentially merged with the Pikuni "Once had". The Gros Ventre people call themselves the Haaninin "white clay people"also spelled A'aninin. The French called them Gros Ventres "fat bellies"misinterpreting a physical sign for waterfall; and the English called them the Fall Indians, related to waterfalls in the mountains. The Blackfoot referred to them as the Piik-siik-sii-naa "snakes" or Atsina "like a Cree"because of years of enmity.
Early scholars thought the A'aninin were related to the Arapaho Nation, who inhabited the Missouri Plains and moved west to Colorado and Wyoming. Today, many [ quantify ] of the Blackfoot live on reserves in Canada. About 8, live [ when? Inthe Blackfoot sold a large portion of their land to the United States government, which hoped to find gold or copper deposits. No such mineral deposits were found. Inthe land was set aside as Glacier National Park.
Some Blackfoot work there and occasional Native American ceremonies are held there. Unemployment is a challenging problem on the Blackfeet Reservation and on Canadian Blackfoot reserves, because of their isolation from major urban areas. Many people work as farmers, but there are not enough other jobs nearby. To find work, many Blackfoot have relocated from the reservation to towns and cities. Some companies pay the Blackfoot governments to lease use of lands for extracting oil, natural gas, and other resources.
The nations have operated such businesses such as the Blackfoot Writing Companya pen and pencil factory, which opened inbut it closed in the late s. In Canada, the Northern Piegan make traditional craft clothing and moccasins, and the Kainai operate a shopping center and factory. Inthe Blackfoot Community College, a tribal collegeopened in Browning, Montana.
The school is also the location of the tribal headquarters. As ofthe Montana state government requires all public school tears on or near the reservation to have a background in American Indian studies.
Inthe Kainai Nation opened the Red Crow Community College in Stand Off, Alberta. Inthe Siksika tribe in Canada completed the construction of a high school to go along with its elementary school. The Blackfoot continue many cultural traditions of the past and hope to extend their ancestors' traditions to their children.
They want to teach their children the Pikuni language as well as other traditional knowledge. In the early 20th century, a white woman named Frances Densmore helped the Blackfoot record their language.
During the s and s, few Blackfoot spoke the Pikuni language. In order to save their language, the Blackfoot Council asked elders who still knew the language to teach it.
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The elders had agreed and succeeded in reviving the language, so today the children can learn Pikuni at school or at home. Inthe Blackfoot Council accepted Pikuni as the official language.
The people have revived the Black Lodge Society, responsible for protecting songs and dances of the Blackfoot. Lasting four days, it is held during the second week of July in Browning. Lastly, the Sun Dance, which was illegal from the s, has been practiced again for years.
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While it was illegal, the Blackfoot held it in secret. The event lasts eight days - time filled with prayers, dancing, singing, and offerings to honor the Creator. It provides an opportunity for the Blackfoot to get together and share views and ideas with each other, while celebrating their culture's most sacred ceremonies.
The Blackfeet Nation in Montana have a blue tribal flag. The flag shows a ceremonial lance or coup stick with 29 feathers. The center of the flag contains a ring of 2 white and black eagle feathers.
Within the ring is an outline map of the Blackfoot Reservation. Within the map is depicted a warrior's headdress and the words "Blackfeet Nation" and "Pikuni" the name of the tribe in the Algonquian native tongue of the Blackfoot. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.