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Papua is probably derived from the Malay word papuwah "fuzzy hair". In , a Spanish explorer called the island Nueva Guinea. In , the western half of New Guinea was officially recognized as Dutch New Guinea, the northeastern section became German New Guinea, and the southeastern quarter became British New Guinea. In , Australia took over the territory, renaming it the Territory of Papua. After World War II, the British and German territories were combined and jointly administered by Australia as the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. In , the country became Papua New Guinea or, officially, - State of Papua New Guinea. Location and Geography.

Body Size: The average total length is between 1. Distribution: Recorded from northern Western province Kiunga to Star Mountains and all of the Highland and New Guinea provinces.

The most concentrated populations appear to be found on islands off the northern coast of PNG. There are also numerous records from the nearby mainland including Madang itself, Alexishafen, Malolo, Nageda and Bogia. It is probable that the snake is found on Manam Island off Bogia.

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Further along the coast it is common near Wewak and Aitape and occurs on Walis Island. Other records include Popondetta, Buna, Kokoda and Ilimo in Oro province; Garaina, Wau and Bulolo in Morobe province; and Telefomin, Tabubil, Ningerum, Rumginae, Takam and Munbil in Western province.

Records are scattered throughout the rest of the Highland and Mamose provinces but this may be due more to the crepuscular nature of the snake than to a lack of abundance. There are isolated records in Gulf, Southern Highlands, Central and Milne Bay provinces. Small-eyed snakes are widely distributed in West Papua and the Aru Islands from as far afield as Montagne de Karoon on the north-western side of Waigao Island to Jayapura near the Papua New Guinea border in the east of West Papua province.

There are museum records from Batante Island and from Misool Island north of Seram. In Geelvink Bay small-eyed snakes have been found on Jobi and Numfoor Islands and it also occurs on Mansinam Island off the eastern coast of Sorong. Mainland records include the mountainous Baliem Valley, Wasior on the Wandam­men Peninsula, Fakfak on the Onim Peninsula, and Mimika River and Merauke in the south.

Habitat: This snake lives in wet environments from sea level to over 1, metres. Common in monsoonal forests, lowland swamps and rainforests where it lives in ground debris. There are some well-established and abundant regional populations, often in and around Coconut plantations especially Karkar Island where large numbers of small-eyed snakes lives in old coconut husk piles. Diet: Believed to be an opportunistic feeder, preying on a wide variety of small ground dwelling animals including lizards, rodents, frogs and particularly other snakes, including its own species.

Reproduction: Very little is currently known about this egg-laying snake although the Moscow Zoo in Russia successfully hatd two juveniles from a clutch of five eggs in Activity: Although generally considered to be a ground dwelling, largely nocturnal species, there is a single report from West Papua of a serious snakebite having been caused by a large M.

ikaheka that was caught in a bird trap high in a tree Warrell et al. During the dry season this snake is often found in old, over­grown coco­nut husk piles, but is often encountered moving on the ground at night during rainfall.

On the PNG mainland small-eyed snakes living in natural forests are rarely encountered and nothing is known about their daily or seasonal activity cycles. Behaviour: These are shy, generally inoffensive snakes until disturbed.

If handled small-eyed snakes can be very aggressive and will bite readily, often wing down hard and refusing to let go of its victim. Small specimens are very agile and surprisingly fast, while large snakes tend to be heavy-bodied.

The small eyes and smooth body scales are specific adaptations for burrowing among ground debris and loose topsoil in search of food.

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Medical Importance: This highly venomous snake is believed to account for only a small proportion of snakebites in mainland regions of Madang, East Sepik and Sandaun provinces. However, a study of M. Bites by this snake also appear to be relatively common in the Rumginae area of Western Province. The presence of small-eyed snakes in coconut plantation husk piles is a potential hazard to plantation workers, as these snakes often emerge from within piles to hunt just as workers are returning home at dusk.

Although local people in the Omati and Baina areas of Gulf province say that this is a common snake, it is rarely a cause of snakebite as it lives in thick rainforest areas where few people venture at night and this may explain why few people seem to be bitten on the mainland.

Venom: Small-eyed snake venom contains a number of unique toxins that are not present in other PNG snake venoms. Although these produce clinical effects similar to those seen in bites by other species, such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity and bleeding, the unique properties of the venom mean that antivenom may not neutralise some components as well as others.

Laboratory experiments suggest that CSL polyvalent antivenom is effective in the treatment of bites by this snake, but more evidence is required to determine whether this applies in clinical cases. Small-eyed snake Oro Province, PNG.

Distribution of small-eyed snakes in PNG New Guinea brown snake Pseudonaja textilis Description: A slender, very fast-moving snake that may be from tan to dark brown in colour dorsally with a cream to yellow belly that is speckled with greyish-brown spots.

Juveniles have a black patch on the top of the head and a black bar across the nape of the neck; some also have up to 50 black cross bands that eventually fade with age in most specimens, although some adults retain faint banded markings.

Scalation : Dorsal scales in 17 rows at midbody; ventrals; anal divided; paired subcaudals in some snakes a few of these are single anteriorly. Brown snakes lack the temporolabial scale which is present on the heads of many other species in PNG. Body Size: Average length is from 1. Distribution: Most common in Milne Bay and Oro provinces.

Specimens have been found near Dogura and Wedau, Baiawa, Tarakwaruru and Menapi Mission near Abuaro on the northern side of Milne Bay province. Mark collected specimens on behalf of AVRU during field work near Heropa, Oro Province in A handful of specimens have been recorded in Central province from near Hisiu, Tapini, and Goldie River as well as Six-Mile and Nine-Mile in the NCD.

Specimens have been collected in West Papua near Merauke, and there are anecdotal reports from Western province near Weam and Morehead. A study of the biogeography of New Guinea brown snakes Williams et alis currently in press.

Habitat: Kunai Imperata cylindrica or pit-pit Themeda triandra grasslands and savanna woodlands comprising AcaciaEucalyptus and Melaleuca tree species.

Brown snakes adapt well to areas of human settlement, at least in Australia. Diet: Very opportunistic, but primarily small lizards and rodents. Unlike other venomous snakes in PNG this species will use constriction to hold and subdue prey in much the same way as non-venomous pythons. Reproduction: Females lay eggs in cluts of up to 22 eggs in October-November. Activity: Almost exclusively diurnal and unlikely to be seen at night.

Brown snakes are very active foraging species that are often encountered moving around searching for food or shelter. Behaviour: If approad this is a very aggressive snake that will defend itself with little encouragement. Brown snakes typically adopt a very characteristic defensive stance in which they lift the front third or more of the body high off the ground in a rigid S -shape and hiss violently while holding the mouth open.

From this position the snake will make repeated lunges at an antagonist, and will strike several times. Medical Importance :. Lalloo et al reported that this species was responsible for 1. Although the venom is extremely toxic, both the yield and the fangs used to deliver it are small. Venom: Brown snake venom contains very powerful toxins that cause bleeding and coagulopathy, and although potent neurotoxins are also present, it is the typically the effects on the blood that are the most clinically important.

New Guinea brown snake Milne Bay Province, PNG. Distribution of brown snakes in PNG Papuan blacksnake Pseudechis papuanus Description: As the name implies these snakes are typically gunmetal black both on the dorsal back and ventral belly surfaces. The tip of the nose and the throat may be cream to yellow in colour. Rare brown-coloured specimens have also been recorded. Smaller specimens are slender while larger snakes can be quite robust.

The head is indistinct from a thickset neck, unlike in the Papuan taipan O. scutellatus in which the head is clearly distinct from the slender neck. Scalation: There are 19 rows of dorsal scales; ventrals; a divided anal scale and from subcaudals single anteriorly, but paired posteriorly.

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Body Size: Average length: 1. Distribution: Specimens have been recorded in Milne Bay, Central, Gulf and Western province, as well as in neighbouring southern West Papua. The current status of the species in Milne Bay and Central provinces is unknown; very few specimens have been reported over the last 25 years, and only one dead specimen has been positively identified in Central province since They appear to be absent from the Kikori Basin, as pictures of blacksnakes were not recog­nised by local people.

A blacksnake was sighted but not captured during a AVRU field trip to Milne Bay Province at the eastern end of the PNG mainland. The only other confirmed identifications since have been in the South and Middle Fly districts of Western province.

Specimens have been collected from Kunini, Oriomo River, Wipim, Iamega, Bensbach and near Weam. A blacksnake was identified as the snake responsible for a fatal snakebite near Balimo in There are reports that Papuan blacksnakes remain common in West Papua near Merauke, and specimens were recently collected on Saibai Island followed by confirmed identification of the species on Boigu Island both Australian islands in Torres Strait.

Habitat: Coastal swamps and marshland, monsoonal forests, bamboo thickets and occasionally savannah woodland. Diet: Opportunistic, but prefers frogs. One hypothesis for the apparent decline in numbers in Central province is that the spread of the poisonous introduced cane toad Bufo marinus has resulted in regional extinction. Reproduction: This is an egg-laying snake, producing cluts of eggs. Activity: This is a diurnal snake that is more likely to be encountered in daylight when it comes out of hiding to bask or hunt for food.

In West Papua specimens have been collected in the early morning basking close to the edge of sago palm lined river banks. Specimens have been reported basking near the edges of forest thickets near Kukipi in Gulf province. No specimens have been reliably identified in Central province sinceand the only blacksnakes caught since then have come from the South Fly district of Western province, and from neighbouring West Papua. Venom : Blacksnake venom contains a number of components that have neurotoxic, anticoagulant, and haemorrhagic activity.

One of the identified toxins has potential myotoxic activity Kamiguti et al Papuan blacksnake Saibai Island, Australia. Distribution of Papuan blacksnakes in PNG Except where stated otherwise all site content © David Williams Although there are many venomous species in Papua New Guinea, the majority present only minimal risk to humans, and the major burden of serious envenoming is caused by just five species: Papuan taipan Oxyuranus scutellatus Description: A large, fast-moving snake that is typically greyish, dark brown to black above with a broad orange-red dorso-vertebral stripe that extends along most of the back.

Papuan taipan Milne Bay Province, PNG Papuan taipan hatching from egg Papuan taipan laying eggs Distribution of Papuan taipans in PNG. Description: This is a thick-bodied snake with an extremely variable colour pattern based on a greyish head and pale yellow, creamish or salmon coloured body with dark-tipped scale edges that give rise to broad dark bands from midbody to the end of the tail. New Guinea brown snake Pseudonaja textilis.

Village subsistence centers on horticulture, with men clearing forests and bush so that their wives can plant gardens and tend pigs. Some crops, such as bananas, sugarcane, and cash crops such as coffee and cocoa are planted and tended by men.

While women often help pick cash crops, most of the income goes to men. Men build houses and fences, while women make grass skirts and net bags bilums.

Women do the daily cooking, while men butr pigs for feasts. Both men and women look after small children, with a father tending his infant while the mother weeds her gardens. In town, most women do domestic chores and child care while their husbands are at work. Women with jobs employ extended kin to do chores.

In both towns and villages, men who do women's work are stigmatized as "rubbish men. The Relative Status of Women and Men. Trobriand chiefs and others who go on open seas A decorative wood carving on a village hut in Kaminabit Village, near the Sepik River. Kula exchange expeditions and give away yam harvests at the annual yam festival gain authority and privilege, and a chief may have many wives and expect commoners to bow in his presence.

However, without female relatives to participate in female exchange events and redeem matrilineage lands and honor, those men's power would evaporate. Among the Gende and many other societies, big men achieve their positions by investing in feasts, bride-prices, and other exchange needs of their partners and followers.

To do this, big men need many wives and female helpers to raise food and pigs to give away. Hardworking women are a man's most valuable asset, and husbands who do not consider their wives' interests risk losing them to other men. Women's procreative power induces men to go to great lengths in initiation and other rituals to strengthen themselves for contact with women and achieve a balance or edge in gender relations.

In the towns, men and women are redefining their relations. With less education and fewer job opportunities, women do not contribute much income to urban households and as a consequence suffer the infidelities and physical abuses of men who feel burdened by the demands of family and the high expectations extended kin place on employed men, especially those who earn high salaries.

Village women help pay back their own bride-prices and assist men in raising cash crops. Some rural women earn money by selling vegetables in urban markets. The choice of a marriage partner is rarely left to the individual. After initiation into adult society, young men and women spend time with the opposite sex in supervised courtship sessions.

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Ideal marriage partners are hardworking and attractive. Clan exogamy is a must, and parents hope their daughters will marry prosperous suitors whose kin pay large bride-prices and who will be good allies in exchange and war.

Women pressed into incompatible marriages can return home or threaten suicide. If those strategies fail, young women may run away with lovers or commit suicide. Men are more likely to be unmarried, as polygyny is practiced and big men attract a greater share of wives.

In Gende society, as many as 10 percent of adult males are polygynous at some time. Divorce occurs even in areas where Catholicism is practiced. Often it is the women who initiate it, as men are loath to lose a female worker. After divorce, most adults remarry unless they are very old and living with children or grandchildren.

As Papua New Guineans become more involved in the cash economy and urbanization, marriage patterns are being transformed. Bride-price inflation is one response to economic inequality. The practice of women competing for men rather than men trying to attract women is having an impact on marital politics throughout the nation.

Women are in an insecure position, especially urban women who must tolerate domestic abuse and infidelity to hold on to their husbands. Domestic Unit. The basic village household consists of a husband, a wife, their unmarried children, and perhaps the husband's parents. Extended families live in adjacent houses, gathering frequently for meals, companionship, work parties, and ceremonies. Men's houses are no longer common, although young men may live with other balors. Household decisions involve consensus between able-bodied adults, although young wives defer to older members.

Residence is usually patrilocal. Less common is matrilocality and avunculocality. Neolocality occurs only in towns.

Newly hatd small-eyed snake at AVRU/UPNG Serpentarium. Subadult small-eyed snake (Madang Province, PNG) Juveniles have a black patch on the top of the head and a black bar across the nape of the neck; some also have up to 50 black cross bands that eventually fade with age in most specimens, although some adults retain faint banded markings. Scalation: Dorsal scales in 17 rows at midbody UPNG Drugons RUGBY CLUB, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. likes 60 talking about this. PNG United September 6, Security footage from California shows a naked man enter a home and shush a home security camera before heading upstairs and entering a teenage girl's bedroom. Police arrested

Even then, a couple may be joined by their parents and other kin. Land and property rights generally pass from parents to children or from uncles to Wife of Papua New Guinea chief applies face paint. Marriages are usually arranged, but women in poor marriages may return home or commit suicide. nieces and nephews.

The big race continued neck to neck until they read the creek called Polsoheiak. Since Pokop was running ahead at this stage, on reaching the creek, he jumped into a big pothole and stayed submerged in there. The masalai read the creek just a few minutes after, and unaware that Pokop was in the creek, he leapt from one side of the creek to the other thinking that his quarry was still in

These kin relations are extended to other members in an individual's kin group. All these persons have an interest in the prosperity of the kin group, and those of the younger generation who contribute the most to that prosperity are likely to receive the most.

Reciprocity is a key element, and nonkin can become "sons" and "daughters" of a group if they contribute generously to group affairs. While women generally do not use clan or lineage lands, they retain the option to do so by contributing to group exchanges.

Kin Groups. The important kin groups are patrilineal and matrilineal lineages and clans, Clan members do not necessarily live on clan land. Women marry out, and migrants move far from their ancestral territories to find wage employment and other benefits in town.

All the members of a kin group, however, must participate in clan affairs, contributing to bride-prices and other exchanges and helping with initiation and mortuary ceremonies. Clans and lineages can shrink and disappear through deaths and indifference. Persons join other clans, allying themselves with their wives' clans or being adopted as children.

An important asset is the land a clan's members hold in common. Land is valuable and a way of life for 85 percent of the population. It is also a form of social security for persons living in towns, most of whom actively engage in kin group affairs to maintain their rural option.

Infant Care. Most babies are born outside the village in a birth hut or garden house, where mother and child spend the first few days or weeks after the birth in relative isolation, gathering strength and hiding from malevolent forces. For the next several years, mothers nurse their babies, and the babies are carried everywhere and played with by adoring relatives. In many societies, there is a small feast when the baby, especially a first child, is around a year old to celebrate its existence and let the parents show their appreciation to all those who made its birth possible, including the mother's family and the bride-price supporters.

Child Rearing and Education. Child rearing is indulgent until age five or six for girls and a few years older for boys. Children explore their environment and run free most of the day.

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Corporal punishment is rare as people believe a child's spirit may leave its body if the child is hit or frightened. A troublesome child is left alone or ignored. If necessary, such children may be taken to the bush or a garden house to act out or sulk.

Children are taught by example. Little girls follow in their mothers' and older sisters' footsteps, at first doing child minding or running errands, and later helping in the gardens. Boys spend a longer time playing with other boys but eventually collect firewood and carry water and, later, clear bush and hunt or fish with their fathers.

Older boys and girls may go through separate initiation or puberty ceremonies to prepare them for marriage and adulthood.

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Rituals and taboos are elaborate, arduous, and sometimes terrifying. Young men and women are taught the meanings and responsibilities of their genders to prepare them for social responsibilities and marriage, including sexuality. Badness in children is not something parents blame themselves for; evil spirits may cause a child to be selfish and cruel, in which case, the parents hire a medium. Higher Education. Higher education is a goal of many parents, especially for their sons.

Many parents worry about the physical dangers urban life holds for women. The urban job market is competitive, and some parents are not impressed with the value of a high school or college education, knowing that education does not guarantee a job.

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Many school leavers and unemployed graduates cause trouble in towns and villages. Parents spend their education dollars on only the brightest, most socially responsible children. In village society, etiquette centers on reciprocity and being hospitable to guests and unexpected visitors, Feasting exchange partners has an urban equivalent in parties where workmates and wantoks are welcome along with their spouses and children.

Reciprocity is expected but is not always possible, putting barriers between individuals of different income levels. One custom that everyone can participate in is sharing betel nut buai. Relations between older and younger and male and female are relaxed. On meeting, men and women of different ages clasp hands or clasp one another around the waist. Couples do not openly express affection in public, but friends of the same sex may hold hands while walking.

It is not rude to stare or for persons to crowd one another at counters or stand very close. In chiefly societies, commoners must bow before chiefs and are prohibited from eating foods reserved for the chief and his family. Religious Beliefs. The first mission in eastern New Guinea was the London Missionary Society, which in set up mission tears from the Loyalty Islands on islands adjacent to and on the Papuan mainland. Some New Guineans resisted the changes missionaries represented, while others accepted opportunities for new forms of wealth, power, and age and gender relations.

Working for the mission sometimes provided young men with an income that allowed them to support and choose brides. Schooled in Christian ethics, young women often refused to have bride-prices paid for them. More often, Papua New Guineans have sought to blend old and new religions. Cargo cults aimed at acquiring the wealth and power of outsiders through blends of Christian and local rituals have been common.

Today, indigenized forms of Christianity seek to control the human condition in a period of insistent and significant change. Most societies have stories telling how superhuman beings created the natural world and society, inventing food plants, pigs and pig exchanges, male and female cults, sorcery, and other cts of culture.

In some societies, such deities are important in Tapa cloth stretd onto a cane framework is decorated by a painting of an insect. male and female cults; in others, they have little to do with present fortunes.

Instead, sorcerers and wits, the spirits of deceased ancestors, nonhuman forest spirits, and monsters command the attention of the living.

Another common belief is that the physical and nonphysical worlds are intertwined and that the well-being of living humans is directly related to the maintenance of proper social ties, adherence to taboos, and the propitiation of spirits.

Except in the case of infants and the very old, death is not natural but results from wrongdoing or oversights on the part of the living.

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Religious Practitioners. The pragmatic focus of their religions and the absence of a hierarchy is reflected in the intense involvement of Papua New Guineans in the ritual maintenance of their own spiritual and physical well-being. Only in a few chiefly societies do hereditary chiefs and their henchmen act as religious specialists.

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More generally, it is expected that all adults will acquire magic spells used in gardening, healing or preventing minor illnesses, and love magic. Many people possess a knowledge of sorcery or witchcraft. Big men often purport to be powerful spirit mediums and to possess both healing powers and deadly war sorcery. Wits are deviant or marginalized individuals who are suspected of using their relations with spirits and other cosmic forces to harm members of their own groups.

Rituals and Holy Places.

Many rituals focus on health and fertility, such as male and female initiation rituals. Aimed at bringing about the maturation and future success of the initiates, initiation involves seclusion in the forest or a menstrual hut, fasting and food taboos, and body mutilation. Initiates seek contact with spirit guides who will help them throughout their lives and even marry spirit women on occasion. Initiation and other ceremonies focus on eliciting the help of ancestors and the living and are accompanied by the exchange of valuables and food.

In preparation for war or in compensation for war deaths, a group may sacrifice hundreds of pigs to call forth the aid of the ancestors. Cannibalism and head-hunting-not universally practiced-were often aimed at rejuvenation or acquiring the bravery and good characteristics of the deceased, with wives eating a portion of their husbands' dead bodies to incorporate their virility and young warriors displaying enemies' heads as symbols of their own magic and efficacy.

Death and the Afterlife. When a person is near death or has died suddenly, mediums are called in to discover the causes and the identity of the sorcerer or witch who may have been involved. Appropriate rituals and sacrifices are performed to prevent death or free the deceased's spirit. Once death has occurred, relatives gather to express their sorrow, wailing and sometimes chopping off fingers, pulling teeth, shaving hair, or pulling out facial hairs.

Burial is now common. In the past a corpse might be cremated, thrown in a river or buried at sea, or left in a tree to rot.

The dry bones might be buried under a house floor to provide protection to the living with the jawbone worn around the neck of a relative or leader. Rituals believed to help the deceased accommodate to their new state occur at the funeral and at later mortuary ceremonies. Spirits may be encouraged to stay near the living.

Some are sent off to a "place of spirits" not far from the living, on mountaintops or in the forest. Funerals and mortuary ceremonies are times to pay off the deceased's debts, recognize his or her accomplishments, and restore friendly relations among the living by exchanging wealth.

Along with plant medicines and traditional therapies for treating physical symptoms, patients and caregivers use rituals designed to overcome or ascertain the causes of sickness and mental illness, such as ruptured social relations, sorcerers, and ghost attacks.

People make use of both Western and traditional treatments in dealing with symptoms while turning to traditional medicine to cure the underlying social and cultural causes of illness. Urban areas have adequate medical staffing in hospitals and clinics. Rural areas are serviced by a thinly spread system of aid posts and small health centers. Aid post workers have only the barest knowledge of first aid.

Some village women are trained in midwifery and community-based family-planning services. Trained nurses and paramedics are rare, and doctors even more so. Inthere was one doctor for every six thousand persons.

In rural areas, health care focuses on first aid and treating chronic diseases such as malaria and pneumonia. Attempts are made to deal with the special health concerns of women and children, including family planning, pregnancy and childbirth, and nutrition and growth. Infant and child mortality rates have dropped, with the most recent figures showing sixty-seven of every one thousand infants dying before the age of twelve months, but women's nutritional needs are not as well met.

In many areas, women and girls are fed significantly less than men and boys, resulting in weight loss, anemia, osteoporosis, and greater susceptibility to illness.

AIDS, gonorrhea, and syphilis are spreading. Urban use of alcohol, tobacco, sugar, and fatty foods has resulted in increased rates of disease. Medical, sports, and nutrition services and exercise classes are springing up in towns.

There are many local and provincial celebrations, including New Year's Day 1 JanuaryEaster, the Port Moresby Show in mid-June, Remembrance Day 2 July to commemorate World War II, the Highlands Show in August or September, Independence Day 16 Septemberand Christmas. Support for the Arts.

Inthe government established the Creative Arts Centre CAC to train and support individuals, stage exhibitions, and commission work for national and private projects. Inthe CAC became the National Arts School. After Independence, the government supported the arts to promote a national culture.

The completion of the parliament building in marked the apex of national artistic culture. After the s, historians and others took a greater interest in oral history and folklore. Oral traditions relating to clan genealogies, initiation and mortuary chants, magic and sorcery, and the teaching of children about their cultures were collected and analyzed, and some were published.

In the s and s, there was also an interest in modern Papua New Guinea writing in English. Publishing outlets include the journals BikmausOndobondoand The PNG Writer. Autobiographies have been published by overseas companies and by the National Research Institute. Graphic Arts. The National Arts School offers courses in graphic design, textile design, fine arts, and music. Students are encouraged to generate contacts and income for themselves and the school.

In addition to helping with large-scale projects such as the National Parliament, the National Museum, and the Papua New Guinea Banking Corporation building in Port Moresby, students have been involved in designing publicity for the Port Moresby Show, and making murals, carved screens, and sculptures for shopping centers.

Pottery is enjoying a renaissance as potters combine modern techniques with traditional designs. Tourists buy replicas or actual artifacts in local markets and several shops in Port Moresby.

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Tourism and the international art market fuel cottage industry production of wood carvings. Colorful string bags are produced and sold by women. Performance Arts. Inthe National Cultural Council funded the Raun Raun Theatre, a popular theater movement that attempts to transpose traditional cultural forms into contemporary theater and address the concerns of rural society.

With the development of institutions such as the University of Papua New Guinea UPNGthe National Research Institute formerly the Institute of Applied Social and Economic Researchand the PNG Institute of Medical Research in the s and s, Papua New Guinea has become a place where local and foreign scientists and academics engage in long-term interdisciplinary research. Perhaps the social science that has gained the most has been anthropology. Other subjects taught at UPNG include biology, business and economics, education, law, and medicine.

In recent years, the UPNG's law faculty, the Law Reform Commission, NRI, and other national bodies and visiting researrs have focused on a number of pressing law and order issues, including violence against women, rioting and political corruption, the resurgence of tribal fighting, gangs, and conflicts over compensation for resource development. The Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research in Goroka and Madang sponsors research on a range of topics, including sexuality, STDs, nutrition, growth and development, infant mortality, and the epidemiology of health and disease.

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Hard Times on Kairiru Island: Poverty, Development, and Morality in a Papua New Guinea Village Stephen, Mile, ed. Sorcerer and Witch in Melanesia Strathern, Andrew. Ongka: A Self-Account by a New Guinea Big Man Stratigos, Susan, and Philip J. Hughes, eds. The Ethics of Development: Women as Unequal Partners in Development Swadling, Pamela. Papua New Guinea's Prehistory: An Introduction, Toft, Susan, ed. Domestic Violence in Papua New Guinea Turner, Mark. Papua New Guinea: The Challenge of Independence Webb, Michael.

Lokal Musik: Lingua Franca Song and Identity in Papua New Guinea Weiner, Annette B. The Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea White, Osmar. Parliament of a Thousand Tribes: Papua New Guinea: The Story of an Emerging Nation, orig. Wormald, E. Crossley, eds. Women and Education in Papua New Guinea and the South Pacific Worsley, Peter. The Trumpet Shall Sound: A Study of "Cargo" Cults in Melanesiasecond ed. Zimmer-Tamakoshi, Laura. Pacific Studies 16 4 : Feinberg and L.

Zimmer-Tamakoshi, eds. Donner and J. Flanagan, eds. Davenport Barry, Glen. Burton, John. Grimes, Barbara F. Ethnologue: Languages of the Worl 1th ed. Jenkins, Carol and the National Sex and Reproduction Research Team. National Study of Sexual and Reproductive Knowledge and Behavior in Papua New Guinea McCall, Grant.

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Countries and Their Cultures No-Sa Culture of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea. Culture Name Papua New Guinean. Alternative Names Niugini Pidgin English. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Before European settlement, there were no towns. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Political Life Government. Social Welfare and Change Programs There is little support for social welfare and change programs. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations Nongovernmental organizations and voluntary associations help residents confront rapid social and economic changes.

Gender Roles and Statuses Division of Labor by Gender. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Socialization Infant Care. Etiquette In village society, etiquette centers on reciprocity and being hospitable to guests and unexpected visitors, Feasting exchange partners has an urban equivalent in parties where workmates and wantoks are welcome along with their spouses and children.

Religion Religious Beliefs. Medicine and Health Care Along with plant medicines and traditional therapies for treating physical symptoms, patients and caregivers use rituals designed to overcome or ascertain the causes of sickness and mental illness, such as ruptured social relations, sorcerers, and ghost attacks.

Secular Celebrations There are many local and provincial celebrations, including New Year's Day 1 JanuaryEaster, the Port Moresby Show in mid-June, Remembrance Day 2 July to commemorate World War II, the Highlands Show in August or September, Independence Day 16 Septemberand Christmas.

The Arts and Humanities Support for the Arts. The State of the Physical and Social Sciences With the development of institutions such as the University of Papua New Guinea UPNGthe National Research Institute formerly the Institute of Applied Social and Economic Researchand the PNG Institute of Medical Research in the s and s, Papua New Guinea has become a place where local and foreign scientists and academics engage in long-term interdisciplinary research.

Bibliography Abaijah, Josephine. Eri, Vincent. The Crocodile, Mell, Michael Yake. The Call of the Lan Narokobi, Bernard. The Melanesian Way Soaba, Russell. Wanpis Maiba Modern Papua New Guinea Web Sites Barry, Glen. html Burton, John. html Grimes, Barbara F. Also read article about Papua New Guinea from Wikipedia. User Contributions: 1. What about the education curriculum. Does it introduce culture and beliefs along with education?

Martin Tonny. National Identity - PNG was unhappy with the education systema nd had developed a First Five Year National Education Plan in The comittee consiste only of Papua New Guineans. Your note on soul searching through dance music and story telling etc.

was never the focus in the education system. National Identity was never the bond of contention then till When a Matane Report or Philosophy of Education was produced. It had strong affiliation to the National Constitution and that alone instilled the long lost feeling of National Identity.

hi there. im very interest in this culture and i would like to explore it and understand it. so please if you have any informaton please email me it. also what i have relised is that the topic is mising power and authority infomartion and how this has changed over time.

thanks in advance. Zainab Kassim. I'm very interested in this culture since i was 12 years old! and now im 21! when i first saw it in National Geography magazine! Papua New Guinea has a very unique culture! and your article tells alot about it! I loved it! amazing,good job! A big THANK YOU!!!!!! png is a very unique and interestin culture. this is very helpful but is it ated to this time? has the modern world have an impacr in he way they live nowadays? just a question.

pls infor me later thanks. Hello, Im trying to cite this for a research paper and does anyone have any idea when this was written and who wrote it thanks? nicole smith. Hi so i have a country report on Papua New Guinea and i was wondering if anyone could give me anymore information or is or knows someone from this interestign country!

Thank you so much! This article is the most accurate that I have come across on the www and I am Papua New Guinean, I do know. Yes, even though the missionaries landed here on our shores more then years ago instructing christian principles and destroying some of our traditions and beliefs as pagan, unlike other countries in similar situations, we still to this day, hold onto our traditional beliefs of sorcery and witchcraft.

People simply acknowledge that there is both bad and good spirits in this world. Sadly, our structure of traditional authority is slowly dying and we have a lot of restless youths who have nothing to do and live for. People do not understand the rule of law as it is a foreign concept inherited from Australia and ultimately the queen of England. Therefore people still resort to traditional forms of conflict resolution to solve their problems such as compensation.

Yes, even if a woman is raped she can be 'righted' with compensation to her relatives. Though not in the towns where the Police presence is great but certainly in the villages where the majority of the people live.

If that doesn't work, tribal fights are bound to happen especially in the Highlands. In the coastal areas they resort to sorcery and witchcraft if the compensation does not work out. Being a Papua New Guinean means constantly striving to make peace with other tribal members whether it be in the urban or rural areas. Making peace means contributing financially or in kind to every customary obligation such as weddings, births, deaths or compensation, when you are called upon or risk been an outcast of your tribe.

This is a reply to 'leilani', yes there has been a tremendous mordern influence since the especially since a foreign owned mobile phone company- Digicel came into the country. Previously the service provider was a monopoly- nationaly-owned subsidary of Telecommunication company TELIKOM B. Competition between these two providers have drastically changed the face of 'communication' in PNG, these days with many 'grass-roots' owning mobile phones, a gaget that was deemed an expensive, and luxuary item by majority of the people.

Information from the ouside world is now conveniently transmitted to those who have 'internet' services accessible from their phones. Urbanization is rapidly spreading to the once sub-urban areas, population increase and education reform systems are changing the face of our society but yet we are threading carefully to protect our culture.

When someone dies, the article says finger are cut off, hair is taken, teeth are pulled-are these things done to the deceased or the living? this website is fantastic it gives you all the info you could imagine!!

i give it 10 out of I don't agree with you, Lily. Laura Zimmer-Tamakoshi is writing from the Anglo-Saxon perspective and portrays a rosy and one-sided picture of the reality of Papua New Guineans since Australian-as heirs of British expansionism- went into these territories.

this video is for anyone 18 years and older!!!! not recommended for children 0 to 17 years old!!! for teaching purposes not for pleasure or any ither Relief. Papua New Guinea's magnificent and varied scenery reflects a generally recent geologic history in which movements of the Earth's crust resulted in the collision of the northward-moving Australian Plate with the westward-moving Pacific low-lying plains of southern New Guinea are geologically part of the Australian Plate With the development of institutions such as the University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG), the National Research Institute (formerly the Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research), and the PNG Institute of Medical Research in the s and s, Papua New Guinea has become a place where local and foreign scientists and academics engage in long-term interdisciplinary research. Perhaps the

She doesn't mention a word about how Anglo colonizers and its corporate moguls appropriated and exploited this people and their resources and are still taking the biggest piece of the pie while destroying their habitats and dividing the population even more. She doesn't talk about how intense and consistent religious indoctrination has been since the beginning of their occupation.

No; she isn't telling it all. There is much more than what you read here.

I have a research paper on Papua new guinea and I would like to know who wrote this. If you could get back to me on that, that would be grate.

thank you. this was a really helpful paper thank you for writing this and putting it up for others to use. thank you very much for the useful information that you shared to us about PNG. I would be volunteering in Papua soon, and I am wondering if you can suggest websites or any article to read that I can visit to help me have more info about PNG and how to easily adapt to their culture.

this will be very helpful for me.

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